Overpopulation in Africa- Causes and Reasons of Population Explosion

Overpopulation and Africa

Over billions of people reside in Africa, and it is believed that the continent is prone to double its strength by 2050. Also, it can double the population by the year 2100. Overpopulation in Africa has been the talk of the town for quite some time.  It is believed that a few African countries such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, etc. can even triple their population count in the upcoming few decades if things proceed in the same pattern.

Overpopulation is becoming one of the most significant issues in Africa. It is said that the population is increasing by 2.5% on an annual basis in the country. It can be thought of as twice the rate of increase that is experienced in Latin America and Asia. Overpopulation in Africa if not controlled, can result in some catastrophic consequences.  Hunger and starvation is thought to be the major causes that may cripple the country due to the population explosion. Read further to know what exactly can change the country’s scenario owing to the overpopulation.

Reasons for overpopulation in Africa

One of the primary reasons for the same is the reduction in the mortality rate. Apart from the decline in the mortality rate, Africans have a higher fertility rate. On average, it is believed that every African woman can deliver up to 5 kids in their lifetime. Thus we can very well understand how high the population can go up if such things happen. The death rate is comparatively lesser than the birth rate with a stagnant fertility rate. This is one of the major reasons for the population rise in the country.

Consequences that will be faced by the people

With the continual increase in the population graph of Africa, more and the number of people are moving towards the urban cities of the continent. Thus it is also developing pressure over the government to devise such cities in such a way that it can cater to the needs of the people who are moving ahead to occupy these places. We all know the ill effects of overpopulation in Africa, and there are certain things that can cause the downfall of the country. So here are a few consequences that one can witness of the population continues to grow at the same pace.

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Land issues

Overpopulation and Africa

As we know that the population in Africa is growing drastically, there will be a quest for land occupancy by the inhabitants of Africa. There is a higher percentage of people engaged in agricultural activities in the country. The agricultural land may also get depleted due to the increase in demand for the operational area. Also, due to the scarcity of resources, there may arise a situation of tension and friction among the citizens of the country further worsening the situation.

Adverse effect on the environment

The environment can also be adversely affected owing to the rise in population in the African countries. As the population increases, there is an increase in the quantity of waste that needs to be disposed of. The waste is either drained into water bodies or is disposed of in far off land. Due to the hike in waste, there arises a need for better disposal of sewage and trash. Many lakes of Africa are also facing a lot of sewage dump day by day. Also, there will be a rise in desertification and deforestation in the country causing some massive environmental issues.


Poverty is one of the major consequences that the people of Africa may have to face owing to the abrupt hike in population over the years. With more and more people populating the country, the country will lack resources to feed every person. Thus as a consequence, poverty will come to a forefront.


When there are too many people populating the country, people lack the source for education giving birth to unemployment. Also, there is a limited number of employment opportunities and vacancies in the country, and it is not going to rise with the rise in population. Thus it will lead to a state where many youths will be jobless and may get involved in crime and unlawful activities spoiling the peace and harmony of the country.

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Degradation in natural resources

Another issue that people of Africa may face is the depletion of natural resources. We all know that our planet has limited natural resources, and increasing population will inevitably result in the consumption of the resources available at a faster pace. In Africa, the natural resources will get depleted at a faster pace, and thus there may also be a chance for war and rivalries.

Child Labour

As discussed above, unemployment will pop up with full flair if there is a continuous increase in the population which will also result in child labor. This may sound quite distressing, but this is something that is obvious to come to the forefront if the population explosion doesn’t stop. Also, such children who are forced to work at a young age to earn bread and butter for them will have to lose their chance of attaining compulsory education. This will prove to be a huge drawback for the future of the country.

How to deal with overpopulation issues

In a country like Africa, where the population is taking a toll over the country’s wellbeing, there is a need to control the fertility rate. It is essential so that there is a decline in the dependency ratio. Also, there is a need for planned cities, agricultural development, taxable jobs and better opportunities for the country to attain the state of development.

Bottom Line

Overpopulation is no less than a crisis that is worsening the living condition in Africa. It is considered to be one of the most challenging things that the country has to cope with for taking it to a developed state. If such things do not change, the country is sure to face a decline and may also face other associated problems in the future. There is still scope for improvement and for that every African native has to come together to bring a change in the country.

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